I took a picture of my English book to be posted here. It’s about active and passive infinitive with similar meaning.
First, the idea of obligation can sometimes be expressed by an infinitive after a noun.
I’ve got letters to write.
These Carpets are to be cleaned as soon as possible.
If the subject of the sentence is the person who has to do the action, the active infinitive is used.
I have work to do. (Not : *
I have work to be done.)
If the subject of the sentence is the action that has to be done (or the person or thing that the action is done to), we use the passive infinitive.
These sheets are to be washed. (Not : *
These sheets are to wash.)
This form is to be filled in in ink. (Not : *
This form is to fill in…)
The cleaning is to be finished by mid-day. (Not : *…
Second, in some structures (for example, after there is), both active and passive infinitives are possible with a similar meaning. We use the active infinitive if we think more about the person who has to do the action than about the action itself.
There’s a lot of work to do/ to be done.
There are six letters to write/to be written.
Give me the names of the people to contact/to be contacted.
We usually say that a house is to let, but to be let is also possible.
Third, the passive infinitives to be seen, to be found, and to be congratulated are common after be.
He was nowhere to be seen.
The dog was nowhere to be found.
You are to be congratulated.
fourth, note the difference between something/anything/nothing to do and something/anything/nothing to be done.
There’s nothing to do - I’m bored. (= There are no entertainments.)
There’s nothing to be done - we’ll have to buy another one. (=There’s no way of putting it right.)
Fifth, to blame is often used in a passive sense (meaning ‘responsible for something bad that happened’).
Nobody was to blame for the accident.
The picture credited to http://aeturnal.deviantart.com/art/CHAIRMODE-ACTIVATE-332065661
Hmm… quite late to post this… but I have to do it now even it’s too late…
Today’s lesson is about infinitive after interrogative conjunction.
I read the lesson book and it showed me about this issue.
Firstly, after certain verbs, it is possible to use the interrogative conjunction how, what, who, where, when or whether with a to-infinitive.
- I wonder who to invite.
- Can you tell me how to get to the station?
- Show us what to do.
- I don’t know whether to answer his letter.
- Ask my brother where to put the car.
- Did you find out when to pay?
The verbs are know, ask, tell, explain, show , wonder, consider, find out, understand, and others with similar meanings.
Secondly, note that it is not possible to begin a question with How to…? Were to …?
These are typical mistakes:
- How to tell her?
- Who to pay?
Instead, we say, for example:
- How shall I tell her?
How can I tell her?
- Who should I pay?
Who did I pay?
The picture is credited to http://oanilicious.deviantart.com/art/Studying-169053494
I opened the book.
It was page 125.
I studied about by and near.
What the difference?
In fact, by means just at the side of; something that is by you may be closer than something that is near you.
So I compared the examples:
- We live near the sea (perhaps five kilometers away).
- We live by the sea (we can see it).
Then I know now the meaning of a clause, “Please, stand by me, Dear.”
So when a girl say it to me, she wants me not only standing near her but also standing by hear (so she can see me always).
Oh, what a romantic clause!
So, I made some sentence used by and near:
I live near Pekayon. Actually, my residence is by Metropolitan Mall (I can see the mall from my window). And near my residence, it’s about 1 kilometer to the South, there’s a Laundry Services Corner that I always use. When I go to the Laundry Services Corner, there’s a porridge stall standing by the main road. I can see it from there.
Picture is credited to http://ptiteouch.deviantart.com/art/letters-73769764
What a hot day!!! I mean it, literally…
when I went back from school, there’s a traffic jam in a toll way. The AC of the bus didn’t work, so I felt so hot and sweaty…
Really sweaty… you know that I’m easy to be sweaty even with a warm weather. And the air was really hot.
I’m already hot and become hotter today due to the unfriendly weather.